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The formal Somali State collapsed in January 1991. Since then, up until mid-2012, Somalia had no central government and the country symbolised what is called a "failed state". 

Patriotism is defined as love, devotion and attachment to one’s homeland.  My literary contributions to this journal (EABJ) have always focused on economy related issues pertaining to the country and with Somalia facing extremely adverse conditions such as famine which take precedence, it may seem ill-timed to write such a piece. However, I see this as precisely the perfect opportunity because of our extreme uphill battle towards success that we cultivate the spirit of patriotism as a major tool for national development. That we are the generation that recognizes and creates a positive link between constructive patriotism and economic development.

Model Industrial Policy for Developing Somalia's Fishing and Boat Building Industry.
Somalia's fishery is under exploited due primarily to four factors. The first factor is the abundance of livestock, which makes people reluctant to utilize the resources in the sea. The second is the absence of vital and important infrastructure. The third is the division of Somalia into several clan-controlled regions, which are presently functioning as self-governing states.

A dispute concerning maritime delimitation in the Indian Ocean between Somalia and Kenya is at the International Court of Justice (ICJ/Court).

Previous research on climate change had suggested the African continent would benefit from warmer global temperatures because it was believed lower temperatures would be expected to boost rainfall and restore the lush greenery to the arid landscape.

Introduction
Somalia is situated in the easternmost part of Africa and is known as Horn of Africa. Somalia geopolitically occupies a very strategic place along major sea transportation routes in the Middle East and Asia. Somalia is bounded by the Gulf of Aden to the north, Indian Ocean to east, Kenya and Ethiopia to the west, and Djibouti to the northwest. The country has a land area of approximately 640,000 km2, an extensive maritime area of approximately 835,332 km2 in size and a coastline of over 3,000 km, which makes Somalia the country with longest coastline in Africa.

While the world is aghast with the often misnamed migrant movement, we are quietly witnessing a repatriation movement in Somalia where both refugees and diaspora finally have the real ability to go back to their homeland - a feat that seemed impossible until recently.

Somali tourism could be an oxymoron. For most, aligning those words together is at best, naïve and at worst, delusional. Somalia’s global image has evolved from one of civil war, tribal conflict and famine to religious extremist militants and perennial refugee status. In fact Somali tourism is so incredulous that as the first tourist in over two decades landed in 2010, he was pleaded to head back home. But the truth is that Somalia and tourism should not exist in a dichotomy. The most important element of the rebuilding and reconciliation process is security as a basic platform for economic and political stability; however, tourism should be part of this agenda.

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The United Kingdom is home to the largest Somali community in Europe, with an estimated 115,000 Somali-born immigrants residing here in 2010 according to the Office for National Statistics. The Somali community represents one of the largest Muslim groups in the UK. They are faced with several social challenges in terms of adjusting to life in the UK and the ability to adapt to western culture. In terms of how smooth this process may be depending on their prior experiences and expectations.

As a GP, I previously worked in Birmingham and currently working in London, I have seen the effects of these challenges on my patients. I have seen how their experiences have shaped their acceptance and expectations of the UK health care system – a system which requires active participation to gain results.

Agriculture is one of the most important sectors in the Somali economy when we see its contribution to national food security, income earnings and employment. It accounts for about 20% of the GDP and employs 30% of the workforce.

We know trade works as an engine to growth and prosperity. Trade is simply the voluntary exchange of goods and services to mutual advantage; however, there is a morality in trade as a commerce.

Due to the decades of civil strife and political upheaval, the state of Somalia was brought to its knees. With very few of its systems left functional, successive governments have found it difficult to govern the country. Lack of proper and up-to-date systems, funds and capacity have compounded the situation further.

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